Sunday, October 28, 2007

Ilocano Trademarks - Saluyot

Saluyot (jute, corchorus olitorius) is a plant usually grown for its edible leaves. Its dried and skinned stem are also processed to make ropes and paper.

Ilocanos love saluyot more than any other groups. It's abundance in most of Ilocano household backyards and vegetable gardens make it very accessible. They cooked it as dinengdeng (lone or mixed with other vegetables) or pinakbet (cooked with garlic and vinegar). They say they love its slippery texture in the mouth.

Because of this, Ilocanos are called Saluyot. Even Ilocanos refer each other as fellow Saluyot. In fact, an Ilocano publication of an Ilocano group in Metro Manila is called Saluyot.

Truly, this vegetable has become an Ilocano trademark.

Ilocano Delicacies - Pinakbet

Pinakbet is a popular Ilocano dish and has became known in the whole Philippines. Pinakbet is a contracted form of the Ilocano word pinakebbet, meaning shrunked or shrivelled. Pinakbet is cooked with bagoong (fermented fish) with native vegetables like tomato, bitter gourd (ampalaya), eggplant, string beans, okra, lima beans (patani), chili pepper, and other Filipino vegetables like parda, and winged beans. The Tagalog version (usually called pakbet) includes calabasa. Pinakbet is best when cooked in clay pot. As its name suggests, it is usually cooked until its almost dry and the vegetables are ahrivelled. In Ilocano fashion, it is not stirred until its cooked and ready to serve. The taste is determined by the right amount of bagoong and tomato (sometimes tomato sauce is used). Pork (bagnet in most cases) is added.

Pinakbet - an Ilocano pride. This dish may describe the life of the Ilocanos. How a healthy and delicious dish can evolve from a harsh and rugged, yet fruitful region of Ilocandia.

Josefa Llanes-Escoda

Josefa Llanes Escoda as a teacher, a social worker, suffragette but more known for her services during the World War II and as the founder of Girl Scout of the Philippines.
She was born on September 20, 1898 in Dingras, Ilocos Norte to Gabriel LLanes and Mercedes Madamba. She finished elementary in Dingras as a valedictorian and high school in Laoag. She went to Manila and entered Philippine Normal School and finished as a teacher. She moved her family to Manila after her father died. She teached in Jose Rizal College, University of Manila, Far Eatern university and Philippine Women's University while studying at night for her high school teacher's certificate in the University of the Philippines.
After she graduated in UP, she became a social worker for the American Red Cross. She was later sent to New York, America in 1925 for an intensive social worker training. She was the Philippine representative for Women's International League for Peace. There she met her husband, Antonio Escoda. In the same year she received her master's degree in social work granted by the Columbia University.
When she returned to the Philippines, she teached in UP and in UNiversity of Santo Tomas while serving as the editor of the Health Messenger, the magazine of Tubercolosis Commission of the Bureau of Health.
She also became the executive secretary of the Philippine Anti-Leprosy Society.
She joined the suffrage movement for the Filipino women's right to vote. She became the secretary of the General Council of Women. In December 7, 1933 women's vote was given to the Filipinas through Act 4112.
She waslater sent again to America to study Girl Scout and upon returning in the country sheestablished the Girl Scouts of the Philippines in 1937.
As a social worker, she established the Boy's Town for street children and free nursery schools.
When World War II broke, she together with her husband joined the Volunteer Social Aid and helped the FIlipino and American soldiers. She was one of those who helped the prisoners of the Death March and the prisoners in UST and in Los Baños.
Her husband was captured by the Japanese in June 1944 andwasimprisoned in Fort Santiago. She was also imprisoned in August and was tortured and interrogated for information but remained strong and silent. She was cleared of any charges by the Japanese and was offered to be freed but chose to remain with her husband. When the greater American force arrived in Luzon to free it from the Japanese. Battles occured in Manila and Josefa was last seen in Far Eastern University still captive of the Japanese.It was believed that she was executedby the Japanesein Chinese Cemetery.

Josefa Llanes-Escoda - an Ilocano pride. Her brilliance, compassion and patriotism is an emphasis how a Filipina women can greatly contribute in the protection, welfare and progress of a society.

Fr. Jose Burgos - The Champion of Filipino Clergy

Jose Apolonio Burgos was the youngest of the three Filipino Priest Martyrs collectively known as the GOMBURZA (Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora).

Born on February 9, 1837 in Vigan, Ilocos Sur to parents Don Jose Tiburcio Burgos and Florencia Garcia.

His first teacher was his mother then finished elementary in Vigan. He went to Manila and entered the Colegio de San Juan de Letran where he finished the Bachiller en Artes at the age of 17. He studied priesthood at University of Santo Tomas and conducted his first mass at the Paroquia del Sagrario de Intramuros.

With his liberal and and nationalist views, he made a courageous defense on the Filipino priesthood for ecclesiatical reforms. He penned articles in response to some written attacks on native clergymen. Because of these he earned the title "The Champion of Filipino Clergy" but incurred the hatred of the Spanish friars.

He was busy seeking reforms when the Cavite Mutiny broke out in 1872. Because of an unjustified testimony of a captured mutineer, the Spanish authorities captured Burgos along with other priests Father Gomez and Zamora. After a mock trial on February 15, 1872, they were sentenced to death by garrot. On February 17, 1872, they were executed in Bagumbayan (now Luneta). Burgos, at 35, was the last to die.

The martyr priests' death was a seminal event in the life of Dr.Jose Rizal, who inspired him to write his second novel as a nationalistic movement.

Jose Burgos - an Ilocano pride. His works on the defense of the Filipino clergymen and his martyrdom had inspired and ignite the flames for nationalism.

Gregorio Aglipay - The Revolutionary Priest

Gregorio Labayan Aglipay was a priest, a nationalist, a patriot and a guerilla leader.

He was born on May 8, 1898 in Batac, Ilocos Norte to Pedro Aglipay and Victoriana Labayan. Orphaned at early age, he grew up with the care of granduncles and grandaunts. He spent his boyhood in the fields helping in the planting of tobacco. When he was fourteen, he experienced resentment against the Spanish when he failed to meet the required quota of tobacco. He was arrested and brought before the gobernadorcillo.

He had his early education in Batac and later moved to Manila and entered the private school of a lawyer, Julian Carpio. With the help of an granduncle, he enrolled in San Juan de Letran where he obtained his Bachelor of Arts. He then entered University of Santo Tomas to study law. He later decided to become a priest and went to Vigan Seminary in 1833.

He was ordained on December 21, 1889 in Manila and celebrated his first mass in January 1890. For eight years he was destined to different parish in Luzon.

His last assignment was in Victoria Tarlac. During the revolution in 1896, he helped the revolutionaries. There he was remembered as a hero and liberator. The chief priest of Victoria ordered the execution of all males due to the information that many were involved in the revolution. As a coadjutor, he intervened and appealed to the Spanish friar and vouched for their innocence.

Aglipay was appoiinted by General Aguinaldo on October 20, 1898 as a military chaplain of the Revolutionary Government.

Later that year, he represented Ilocos Norte to the first Philippine Congress and participated in laying the Constitution.

He was promoted by Aguinaldo as a military vicar general in October 20, 1898. He used his rank to continue the work begun by Father Jose Burgos - the Filipinization of the Church in the Philippines. He wrote several manifestoes urging the Filipino clergymen to unite and establish a Church government by them. Because of this, he was excommunicated by the Catholic Church and judged guilty of inciting rebellion against the Church authorities.

He permanently end his ties to the Roman Catholic Church when he became the first supreme bishop of the newly established church, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente.

When the Philippine-American War broke, he became a guerilla leader and engaged the Americans in several encounters. When Aguinaldo was captured, Aglipay surrendered in Laoag, a month after.

Aglipay's desire for independence did not lose its fervor even after peace was restored. In the next three decades, he was active in the Philippine campaign for independence from American regime. He ran for presidency in 1935 against Manuel L. Quezon but lossed.

He married Pilar Jamias of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte on March 12, 1939.

He died the following year on September 1, 1940 in Manilaand was buried first in Aglipayan Cathedral in Tondo, and later in 1945, in the Temple of Maria Clara in Sampaloc. His remain was later transferred in his hometown Batac.

Antonio Luna

Antonio Luna was a Filipino pharmacist, a propagandist and a military general during the Filipino-American war.

He was born on October 29, 1866 in Urbiztondo, Manila to Don Joaquin Luna and Doña Laureana Novicio, both from prominent families of Badoc, Ilocos Norte. He was the younger brother of Juan Luna.

He enrolled at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila where he finished Bachelor of Arts in 1881. At University of Santo Tomas, he won the first prize for his work "Dos Cuerpos Fundamentales de Quimica" (Two Fundamental Bodies of Chemistry). He left for Europe and entered the University of Barcelona where he obtained his Licentiate in Pharmacy. In 1890, he got his degree in Doctor in Pharmacy by the Central University of Madrid.

As a pharmacist, he made researches such as his El Hematozoario de Paludismo which was a scientific treatise on malaria. He then tour the Europe, in countries like Belgium and France and work together with famous bacteriologist like Dr. Latteaux and Dr. Laffen. He was appointed by the Spanish government to study tropical and communicable diseases.

As a propagandist, he contributed to La Solidaridad and used the pen name Taga-Ilog. He wrote an article, Impresiones, that described his observation on Spanish customs and idiosyncrasies. He returned to the Philippines on 1894 and became an advocate in making the Philippines as an Spanish province and the Filipinos enjoying the rights and priveleges of an Spanish citizen. Because of his advocacy for liberalism, he was arrested and deported to Spain. He then left for Belgium where he studied military strategies under General Geral Leman.

In 1898, he returned to the Philippines, and was appointed by Gen. Aguinaldo as Chief of War Operations, and was assigned as a brigadier general. He then established a military academy in Malolos and recruited former generals of the 1896 Revolution as trainors. A Red Cross Chapter was also established. Luna proved to be a strict disciplinarian. For instance, Gen. Pedro Janolino was relieved when his Kawit batallion refused to fight during the battle of Kalookan. Because of his disciplinary measures, he created enemies among officials and civilian troops.

At the Fall of Marilao on March 29, 1899, he was crushed not only by the defeat but by the lack of discipline among Filipino troops. He tendered his resignation but Aguinaldo refused to accept it. He continued to fought gallantly against the Americans in Pampanga, Tarlac and Pangasinan.

On June 4, 1899, he received a telegram from Aguinaldo for a conference in Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija. When he arrived the next day, he found out that Aguinaldo had moved in Pampanga. He cursed the president and the guards which were the same men he relieved during the Battle of Kalookan. As he was leaving, he was treacherously shot and stabbed by Aguinaldo's men. He was hurriedly buried in the convent.

Antonio Luna's death was a great loss and a deciding factor on the campaign against the Americans. With the most capable general dead, Aguinaldo's troop suffered great losses that lead to the capture of the president.

Antonio Luna - an Ilocano pride. His brilliance as a scientist, his advocacy in liberalism, and his military genius.

Artemio Ricarte

Artemio Ricarte was a general during the Philippine Revolution against Spain and during the Filipino - American War.

He was born on October 22, 1866 in Batac, Ilocos Sur to Faustino Ricarte and Bonifacia Garcia. He took his early education in Batac then enrolled at Colegio de San Juan de Letran and finished Bachelor of Arts. He studied for teaching profession at the University of Santo Tomas and then at Normal School. He was sent to supervise a primary school in San Francisco de Malabon (now Gen. Trias, Cavite). There during the dawn of Philippine Revolution, he joined the Katipunan and adopted the code name Vibora (viper).

He lead the attack of the Spanish garrison in San Francisco de Malabon and crushed it on August 31, 1896. He was apponited by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo as a brigadier general and was elected as captain general during the Tejeros Convention. He lead the battles in Cavite, Laguna and Batangas. He was then appointed by Aguinaldo to supervise the surrender of arms in Biak-na-Bato, San Miguel, Bulacan.

When the Filipino-American War broke in 1899, he was the Chief of Operations of the Filipino forces in second zone along Manila. He was captured in 1900 and was deported to Guam together with Apolinario Mabini.

They were returned to Manila in 1903 and was supposed to be released if they took their oath of allegiance to America. Mabini confined, because he was ill. Ricarte refused so he was again deported, this time to Hong Kong. He secretly returned to Manila with the hope of rekindling the revolution but he was captured because of the prize money allocated by the Americans for his capture. Again he was deported to Hong Kong. He and his wife later moved to Yokohama, Japan in self-exile. They lived there until the start of World War II when the Japanese flew him back to the Philippines to help them pacify the Filipinos.

He died on July 31, 1945 in Kalinga.

Artemio Ricarte - an Ilocano pride. His bravery and tough stand of his nationalism is a good example.

Gabriela Silang - The Philippine Joan of Arc

Maria Josefa Gabriela Cariño Silang was the first Filipino woman to lead a revolt against the Spaniards. She joined the movement of his husband Diego when he started the revolt to free Ilocos.

Born on March 19, 1731 in Caniogan, Santa, Ilocos Sur. She was adopted by a wealthy businessman Don Tomas Millan who later became her husband at her age of 20. He died three years after without a child. She remarried at 1757 with Diego Silang.

She was an active member of his husband's force against the colonizers. When Diego was killed, she reorganized the troops and continued the will of his husband to drive the Spanish off from Ilocos. She lead the attacks against the Spanish for four months. The Spanish made big efforts to capture her. Because of this, she retreated to Pidigan, Abra and established some headquarters. She also convinced the Tinguians to help her fight.

On September 10, 1873, the fierce battle between Gabriela's troops and the Spanish occured in Vigan. They faced a larger army of the enemy with the help of Tagalogs, Kapampangans and some Ilocano conspirators. Many was killed on her side. She escaped along with her Uncle Nicolas and seven remaining members. They were later caught in Santa on September 29, 1763. They were summarily hanged in the plaza of Vigan with Gabriela being the last to die.

Gabriela Silang - an Ilocano pride. Her bravery and ferocity signifies the role of the Filipino women in the liberation of the Philippines during foreign colonization.

Pedro Ambaristo and the Basi Revolt

Pedro Ambaristo lead one unique revolt against the Spanish colonizers on September 16, 1807. It was called the Basi revolt as it revolved in the love of the Ilocanos in their native wine basi (sugarcane wine).

This was to protest the Spanish expatriation of the production and sale of the wine basi by the natives on 1786. The Spanish administered the production of basi and Ilocanos were forced to buy from their stores. But on September 16, 1807, Ilocanos from Piddig, Ilocos Norte lead by Ambaristo rose in revolt. The movement quickly spread in nearby towns. The troops move southward toward Vigan which was the central government of the Spanish in Ilocos at that time, capturing each town they passed by from Spanish authorities. On September 28, 1807, the final battle occured in Bantaoay River (now an area in Gongogong, San Ildefonso, Ilocos Sur). The revolutionaries were defeated because the Spanish troops were well-prepared to defend Vigan from them. Ambaristo and two other leaders were captured and they were hanged in the plaza of Vigan the following day.

The bicentennial celebration of the Basi Revolt was commemorated this year in the site of the revolt's historical last battle in San Ildefonso, Ilocos Sur.